Wednesday, May 24, 2017
Sun., March 31, 1935 - After dinner Andrew, Trina, Mildred and I went over to Jimmie's and Adolph's. Mildred is going to be married this summer, she showed me her dishes, etc. Kids here and we left at 6:00. Home at 9:00. Had supper and here.
Mon., April 1, 1935 - Cold and cloudy. I didn't happen to be fooled today for a wonder.
Tues., April 2, 1935 - Snowed a very little. Still cold. Studied for a change tonite.
More new names.
I neglected yesterday to note that it was Dorothy Jo's 91st birthday. And thinking of that on the way to work, I realized I could use one of my favorite pictures (seems I have a lot of favorites) for today's post. As cute as the babies are (Mom and Ronnie), it is Wilma and Dorothy Jo that really make this photo special. They are just adorable. The photo was taken in 1938, so Dorothy Jo was 12 and Wilma was 9 years old.
Tuesday, May 23, 2017
Thurs., March 28, 1935 - More dust although not as bad as yesterday.
Fri., March 29, 1935 - Howard came after me after supper. Went up to Pete's, Davis' and Iversen's to make arrangements for going to the spelling contest tomorrow. Snowed tonite a little.
Sat., March 30, 1935 - To Gormeley, had 2 teeth filled and all cleaned. At 11:30 to Wayne to contest with Irene, Helen, Allen, and Marian. Ray and Willie came after me at Courthouse at 4:30. Left Winside at 6:15. I got to Andrew's at 9:00.
Memoranda: Mar. 30 & 31, 1935 - Lillie, Irene Morris, George Jurgensen, Ray, and Willie went to a party dance at Elkhorn that Edna Ruschmann was giving.
I don't know if this was an adult spelling contest or one for the students.
There are several people mentioned here that I am not familiar with, but I am glad to have them along for the blog ride.
Grandma's trip to the dentist made me wonder what dentistry was like in 1935. Craig Armstrong, D.D.S. has a webpage with the history of dentistry and I grabbed the following. The high voltage wire sounds like it added a little spark (tee hee) to the proceedings. And the fact that there was something called a "Shock Proof X-Ray" is very reassuring:
It was during the 1920s that the Ritter Dental Company introduced the Model A Dental X-Ray, finally giving dentists an efficient diagnostic instrument. The machine needed two groups of transformers to adapt it to the various voltages and frequencies used during that time. Safety precautions also needed to be taken when the x-ray machine was in use. The clinician and patient both needed to stay at least one foot away from the high-voltage wire, which ran outside the arm from the transformer cabinet to the x-ray head.
The Ritter Company improved their x-ray machine in the 1930s, with the development of the Ritter Model B Shock Proof X-Ray. It eliminated earlier guesswork with an exact radiographic technique. It had a flexible x-ray head that was easy for dentists to adjust. Radiographs up to 14×17 inches were now possible.
Dental education evolved into a professional discipline during this period. In 1923, the American Association of Dental Schools was established. The following year, the American Dental Assistants Association was founded. Dental schools became university-based after the Carnegie Foundation issued the Gies Report, a comprehensive report that covered the state of dental education, in 1926. In 1928, the National Board of Examiners was established.
Research on fluoride was a major advancement in the 1930s. During that time, Frederick S. McKay, a Colorado dentist, determined that the brown stains on his patients’ teeth were related to the water supply. He conducted research from 1930-1943, verifying that drinking water with high levels of natural fluoride was associated with low dental caries yet high mottled enamel. By the beginning of the 1940s, H. Trendley Dean was able to establish the ideal fluoride level needed in drinking water to reduce decay without mottling. Grand Rapids, Michigan, was the first city in the world to fluoridate drinking water in 1945.
Dr. Alvin Strock inserted the first Vitallium dental screw implant in 1937, using the biocompatible implant metal developed by orthopedic surgeon Charles Venable a year prior. The nylon toothbrush, made of synthetic bristles, became available for purchase in 1938.
So what were toothbrush bristles made of before 1938?
Friday, May 19, 2017
Mon., March 25, 1935 - Not as warm today as yesterday. Started reviewing after school for spelling contest at Wayne next Saturday.
Tues., March 26, 1935 - Miss Sewell visited first period this morning. Ella Mann came up after school for the big dictionary. Dust storm today.
Wed., March 27, 1935 - Dust storm again.
More dust storms. Yikes.
I dont' know how old Grandma is in these pictures, but she sure is pretty. Note the photographs of Ola and Dorothea, aka Grussfather and Grussmother, on the wall. And does Mom have that plant stand? I don't want it, but it would be nice to know it's still around somewhere.
Thursday, May 18, 2017
Fri., March 22, 1935 - D.W. back to school again. Mr. G. brought me to town after supper. Cora Brodd and Miss Nuss up to invite me to a shower for Irene Weible a week from Sat. Went to see Miss Mettlen about going together for a present. Attended lodge tonite, too.
Sat., March 23, 1935 - To Wayne on train with Mom. Got a new hat in Wayne. Benthack says I have a mild case of sciatic rheumatism most likely caused by my tonsils. Home at noon. Gormely examined my teeth and found one small cavity. Ray and Willie in this evening. They are going to Bennington next Sat. nite. If I want to go along and stop at Mildred Andersen's I need to be ready at seven o'clock.
Sun., March 24, 1935 - To church and S.S. Howard came up this afternoon. Mom, Howard, and I went out to Ola's and I took some pictures of the kids.
Tonsils can cause sciatic rheumatism? News to me, but I'm not up-to-date on such things.
New names for me . . . Cora Brodd and Miss Nuss.
Wednesday, May 17, 2017
Tues., March 19, 1935 - Rheumatism getting better. Finished examinations in 4 upper grades. Today Lester and Bessie spent their last day in this school. They have moved to town.
Wed., March 20, 1935 - Seemed rather funny without Lester & Bessie. D.W. absent. We had a good dust storm today.
Thurs., March 21, 1935 - Changed the seats to face north. Lovely day for first day of spring. Howard stopped here awhile this evening.
I don't have much commentary, which is probably a good thing because who knows what I might write. I say this because I put 2017 after March 19 and 20 before I realized my error. I might need a nap.
I tried to find a good photo of someone looking confused (like I apparently am today) but saw one of my favorite photos and am using it instead.
Tuesday, May 16, 2017
Sat., March 16, 1935 - Snowed in morning. Plaster fell in dining room in a.m. Mom started doctoring my lame leg today. Annie & family in this p.m. Ray came home about 9:00 tonite. I worked on one of my quilts this afternoon and evening.
Sun., March 17, 1935 - Mayme Voss came up this p.m. Stayed home all day and doctored my rheumatism, which is getting better. Ray left about 6:30. Howard and I played "Squeak" before he brought me to Goodlings.
Mon., March 18, 1935 - Dust storm most of day. Gave some quarterly examinations.
I remember when the plaster fell down in the stairway going upstairs. Well, I wasn't there when it happened and am glad no one was on the stairs when it happened, but I heard about it. Big ol' chunk as I recall.
I thought dust storms very much pre-dated the 1930s as far as being a widespread problem -- boy was I wrong. The following is not from wikipedia, for once, but from a 2012 article in the Lincoln Journal Star:
Throughout recorded history Nebraska has suffered periodic catastrophic dust storms; geologists see wide strata of dust from the 1400s throughout the Great Plains. Most of the current comparisons refer to the Dust Bowl days of the 1930s and overlook the tremendous dust storms of the 1890s, which were so strong they broke out windows in Adams County.
The devastation of the 1930s started during World War I when the federal government urged farmers to produce more wheat to feed Europe. As prices rose, farmers plowed under thousands of acres, destroying native prairie grasses, some with root structures many feet deep that stabilized the soil even in drought conditions.
The Great Depression, with beginnings in 1929, destroyed the American economy, but even its effects did not squelch the profits of wheat farmers who, in the 1920s, as prices for wheat declined, simply sacrificed even more prairie to increase production.
In 1931, the loose soil started blowing, and a year later, 750,000 acres of farmland had been abandoned in Nebraska alone. The federal government began paying farmers not to cultivate their land in order to encourage a return of prairie grasses, and land conservation techniques were introduced.
The so-called black blizzards started in 1934, with drifting dust captured along fence lines, sometimes drifting up to the roof lines of houses and farm buildings.
Just when it was thought it couldn’t get any worse, 1935 dawned with dust storms, and on April 14, 1935, a dust storm termed “black Sunday” began moving tons of top soil to the north and east. Strong winds carried the dust to the East Coast and Washington, D.C., which spurred action on all governmental fronts. It was said that this storm sent clouds of dirt as far as London and even Moscow.
In Lincoln, the top of the Capitol was obscured, schools closed and street lights were turned on at midday. As summer began, in some areas of Oklahoma, Texas and Kansas, road graders were called in to clear highways and railroad tracks.
As the drought continued, the year began and was termed the driest in more than 50 years, temperatures of more than 100 degrees cooled only slightly overnight and high winds persisted, though somewhat abated, in Nebraska and eastern Colorado.
What already was being called the Dirty Thirties in Nebraska was termed the Dust Bowl by Associated Press writer Robert Geiger, who noted the hardest-hit areas were in the panhandles of Oklahoma and Texas and southwest Kansas. Later, the area generally included a strip through western Nebraska into southern Canada.
Newsreels and newspapers reported farm animals were suffocated and buried in dust; cars and houses were stripped of paint as if sandpapered; the sun was completely blotted out as visibility dropped to zero; many wore scarves and cloth masks whenever going outdoors; and damp towels were hung over windows to prevent dust, which seeped through every crack to cover everything, even indoors.
In Nebraska, nature, ever perverse, sent a rainstorm so fierce it couldn’t be absorbed into the dust, and more than 100 people died in the flooding of the Republican River. Still not done, 1936 added the scourge of a grasshopper infestation.
Finally, in 1939, more normal rainfall occurred, and the Depression lessened, while machines began to replace horse power on farms and in cities.
In Nebraska from 1936 to 1939, farmers were said to have lost $112 million in crops to the drought and more than $30 million to the grasshoppers. Populations decreased in many rural areas, the number of farms plummeted by as much as 50 percent and marriage and birth rates dropped to their lowest levels in decades.
In the Dust Bowl, farmers received aid of $200 million from 1933 to 1940 as the federal government retaliated with the Agriculture Adjustment Administration, Federal Land Bank and other programs.
On a local level, ponds and dams were built and new farming techniques, such as contour plowing, were introduced. One giant program included the planting of a mile-wide shelterbelt of trees in a north/south alignment from Texas to Canada, though it never was completed.
All of the problems were “primarily the work of man … stripping the landscape of its natural vegetation,” which, if left undisturbed, could have prevented the worst of the Dust Bowl problems.
Interesting stuff . . .
Wednesday, May 3, 2017
Wed., March 13, 1935 - Rheumatism better today. Warm and sunshiny. 8th grade reviewed Arithmetic after school.
Thurs., March 14, 1935 - Rheumatism much worse. I can hardly get into the out of bed. Kids will have to do all the cleaning tomorrow for party because I won't be able to do any.
Fri., March 15, 1935 - Goodling took me to school. Got very warm today. Our party a success. Howard took me to the "hard time" card club meeting at Wagners. Windy and dusty tonite.
She doesn't say, but I suppose the party was for St. Patrick's Day.
It must be the month or something, because glancing around these same March days in 1936, Grandma had rheumatism problems then, too.